The meaning of life is that it stops. |每日一读

Franz Kafka

原文:

The meaning of life is that it stops. 

生命之所以有意义是因为它会停止。

Franz Kafka(弗兰兹·卡夫卡)

Franz Kafka was one of the major fiction writers of the 20th century. He was born to a middle-class German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, Bohemia (presently the Czech Republic), Austria–Hungary. His unique body of writing—much of which is incomplete and which was mainly published posthumously—is considered to be among the most influential in Western literature.

弗兰兹·卡夫卡是二十世纪的主要小说作家之一。他出生在布拉格、波希米亚(现为捷克共和国)、奥地利-匈牙利的一个讲德语的中产阶级犹太家庭。他独特的写作体裁被认为是西方文学中最具影响力的作品之一,其中许多作品是不完整的,而且主要发表在死后。

bron:in Prague, Austria-Hungary 1883/07/03

生于:1883年7月3日,奥地利-匈牙利-布拉格

Died:1924/06/03

卒于:1924年6月3日

Genre:Fiction, Philosophy, Short Stories

类型:小说、哲学、短篇小说

Influences:Franz Werfel, Knut Hamsun, Robert Walser, Anton Chekhov, Søren Kierkegaard, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Charles Dickens, August Strindberg, Gustave Flaubert, Heinrich von Kleist, Octave Mirbeau

影响:弗兰兹·沃菲尔,克努特·哈姆森,罗伯特·沃瑟,安东·契诃夫,瑟伦·克尔凯郭尔,费奥多·陀思妥耶夫斯基,查尔斯·狄更斯,奥古斯特·斯特林堡,古斯塔夫·福楼拜,海因里希·冯·克莱斯特,八度米波尔

His stories include The Metamorphosis (1912) and In the Penal Colony (1914), while his novels are The Trial (1925), The Castle (1926) and Amerika (1927).

他的小说包括《变形记》(1912)和《在刑事殖民地》(1914),而他的小说则是《审判》(1925)、《城堡》(1926)和《美利卡》(1927)

Kafka’s first language was German, but he was also fluent in Czech. Later, Kafka acquired some knowledge of French language and culture; one of his favorite authors was Flaubert.

卡夫卡的第一语言是德语,但他在捷克也很流利。后来,卡夫卡获得了一些法语语言和文化的知识;他最喜欢的作家之一是福楼拜。(全称:Gustave Flaubert 居斯塔夫·福楼拜)

Kafka first studied chemistry at the Charles-Ferdinand University of Prague, but switched after two weeks to law. This offered a range of career possibilities, which pleased his father, and required a longer course of study that gave Kafka time to take classes in German studies and art history. At the university, he joined a student club, named Lese- und Redehalle der Deutschen Studenten, which organized literary events, readings and other activities. In the end of his first year of studies, he met Max Brod, who would become a close friend of his throughout his life, together with the journalist Felix Weltsch, who also studied law. Kafka obtained the degree of Doctor of Law on 18 June 1906 and performed an obligatory year of unpaid service as law clerk for the civil and criminal courts.

卡夫卡最初在布拉格查尔斯-费迪南德大学学习化学,但两周后改学法律。这为卡夫卡提供了一系列的职业机会,这使他父亲感到高兴,并需要更长的学习课程,使卡夫卡有时间学习德国研究和艺术史。在大学里,他加入了一个名为“莱昂德·德意志学生会”的学生俱乐部,这个俱乐部组织了文学活动、阅读和其他活动。在学习的第一年结束时,他遇到了马克斯·布罗德,马克斯·布罗德将成为他一生中的挚友,还有同样学习法律的记者菲利克斯·韦尔茨奇。卡夫卡于1906年6月18日获得法学博士学位,并担任民事和刑事法院法定的无偿法律文书。

Kafka’s writing attracted little attention until after his death. During his lifetime, he published only a few short stories and never finished any of his novels, unless “The Metamorphosis” is considered a (short) novel. Prior to his death, Kafka wrote to his friend and literary executor Max Brod: “Dearest Max, my last request: Everything I leave behind me … in the way of diaries, manuscripts, letters (my own and others’), sketches, and so on, [is] to be burned unread.” Brod overrode Kafka’s wishes, believing that Kafka had given these directions to him specifically because Kafka knew he would not honor them—Brod had told him as much. Brod, in fact, would oversee the publication of most of Kafka’s work in his possession, which soon began to attract attention and high critical regard.

卡夫卡的写作直到去世后才引起人们的关注。在他有生之年,他只出版了一些短篇小说,而且从来没有完成他的任何一部小说,除非《变形记》被认为是一部短篇小说。在他去世之前,卡夫卡写信给他的朋友和文学执行人马克斯·布罗德:“亲爱的马克斯,我最后的请求:我留下的一切……以日记、手稿、信件(我自己和他人的)、草图等方式,是被烧掉而未读。”布罗德压倒了卡夫卡的愿望,认为卡夫卡已经给了他这些指示,特别是因为卡夫卡知道他不会尊重他们——布罗德告诉他那么多。事实上,布罗德将监督出版他拥有的卡夫卡的大部分作品,这些作品很快开始引起人们的关注和高度批评。

Max Brod encountered significant difficulty in compiling Kafka’s notebooks into any chronological order as Kafka was known to start writing in the middle of notebooks, from the last towards the first, etc.

马克斯·布罗德在将卡夫卡的笔记本编译成任何时间顺序方面遇到了很大的困难,因为已知卡夫卡开始在笔记本中间书写,从最后到第一个等等。

All of Kafka’s published works, except several letters he wrote in Czech to Milena Jesenská, were written in German.

除了用捷克语写给米勒娜·杰森卡的几封信之外,卡夫卡所有出版的作品都是用德语写的。

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