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20190604思考——失期,法皆斩

今天突然想起了一个故事

约在2228年前,陈胜吴广揭竿而起,起的原因很简单,《陈涉世家》的原文是“会天大雨,道不通,度已失期。失期,法皆斩。”,当然,这是后人写的(司马迁),在这里不想谈历史观的问题,我认为这段史料/这个故事是真的。

揭竿而起

《过秦论》要比《史记》早五十年,贾谊比司马迁也要年长五十多岁。在《过秦论》里面可以找到这样一句话:

始皇既没,余威震于殊俗。然陈涉瓮牖绳枢之子,氓隶之人,而迁徙之徒也;才能不及中人,非有仲尼、墨翟之贤,陶朱、猗顿之富;蹑足行伍之间,而倔起阡陌之中,率疲弊之卒,将数百之众,转而攻秦,斩木为兵,揭竿为旗,天下云集响应,赢粮而景从。山东豪俊遂并起而亡秦族矣。

这里没有提到“揭竿而起”,在《史记·秦始皇本纪》里可以找到这样一句话:

秦王既没,馀威振於殊俗。陈涉,瓮牖绳枢之子,氓隶之人,而迁徙之徒,才能不及中人,非有仲尼、墨翟之贤,陶朱、猗顿之富,蹑足行伍之间,而倔起阡陌之中,率疲敝之卒,将数百之众,转而攻秦。斩木为兵,揭竿为旗,天下云集响应,赢粮而景从,山东豪俊遂并起而亡秦族矣。

内容差不多,但是提到的都是“斩木为兵,揭竿为旗”,揭竿而起这个词应该是清末才可能有的,被2000年后的人总结出来的。

斩木为兵,揭竿为旗

首先结合这段史料:我理解的这两句话是这个意思:

斩木为兵:削木头(打造兵器)装备给起义军。

揭竿为旗:举着竹竿作为起义军旗(一种仪式)。

其次结合历史背景:可知这个装备水平是非常简陋的,而且影响战斗力的其他原因就是缺乏训练以及身体素质了,我认为和秦朝的正规军根本没得打。因为当时尽管也是农业社会,但已经进入到了铁器时代,秦军使用铁器铁箭有战马有训练有良好的补给,从前线到后勤都是优势。而起义军基本都是农夫,这些条件都不具备。所以如果摒弃偏见和情感的影响,客观来说,我不认为大泽乡起义能成功。但是因为有了情感的互通,起义军从九百人逐步扩大到数十万人。但是这段故事的结局不怎么美好,半年不到就土崩瓦解了,原因不想说太多,我判断是陈胜的猜忌和自大。

思考一

比如生产力水平的大幅进步是这样一个阶段,石器-木器-铜器-铁器-蒸汽(一工革)-电气(二工革)-…。其实细想,斩木为兵揭竿为旗对抗铁器,真感觉差不了多少,如果在条件有限不能射箭的情况下,双方进行近战肉搏,拿木棒竹竿的偷袭一下拿铁器的,兴许就把他铁器缴获并投入使用了,可能几率很小。但讲常规就是全部在正面打,木棒和当时生产力造出来的铁器也应该差不多。

思考二

2228年前,如果暴民想对抗暴政,物质层面使用的木棒竹竿,精神层面也就念叨个什么“燕雀安知鸿鹄之志”、”“天下苦秦久矣”,镇压者不过使用铁器战马,精神层面应该没什么就是君主专制中央集权。

今天,如果恶民要对抗恶法,物质层面能用的差不多还是木棒菜刀,精神层面借用v的话简单说“面具下不仅有肉体还有灵魂,灵魂不怕子弹”,镇压者用什么都无从得知了,精神层面的也基本无从得知。

生产力进步了两千多年,对于世界的认知水平进步了两千多年。我们对比可知2228年前的事情无疑是伟大光荣而且正确的,但也有不足之处,因为当时的社会形态是一个主讲丛林法则的,遇到事情讲拳头,而今天我们逐步走向法治社会,逐渐可以讲道理、讲逻辑、讲证据、讲基本事实。

在《心理学研究方法》第一章第四节《认知世界的四种方法》有言这四种方法是

“直觉”、“权威”、“逻辑”、“经验”

在面对重要事物时,人会求助于逻辑和实证经验。

在面对不重要事物,或时间等条件不充裕的情况下,人会更倾向于使用直觉或听信权威。

思考三

天下苦秦久矣的原因是徭役和赋税和刑罚,简单说都是由于法的原因,结合事实客观来说确实是恶法,委婉说就是史学界的评价用词叫严刑峻法。

思考四

我认为一个近现代国家(二工革至今)的正式军队只有两个作用,第一是用来保护国家,第二是发动侵略。简单说都是对外使用的。用于内政的,我喜欢称其为人民公敌。

2019·06·04

北京·朝阳

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